The third display room
War of Resistance Against Japan
On July 7, 1937, the Japanese military fabricated a story about a missing Japanese soldier near the Marco Polo Bridge in Wanping County, Hebei Province, as a pretext to launch an all-out war against China. At that time, Japanese military forces were far superior to those of the Chinese. At the beginning of the war, the Soviet Union was the only country to provide assistance to the latter, and the outlook appeared grim for China. Nevertheless, Chiang insisted on prosecuting the war, adopting a strategy designed to take advantage of the great disparity in military strength. It was based on the expectation that the conflict would be long and protracted, and designed to hold on and wait for changes, prioritize small successes over large victories and trade space for time. After the outbreak of the Pacific War, China and its allies, most notably the United States and the United Kingdom, ultimately defeated Japan.
From November 22-26, 1943, Chiang Kai-shek attended the Cairo Conference in his capacity as chairman of the national government. There he met with U.S President Franklin Roosevelt and Prime Minister of the United Kingdom Winston Churchill, and discussed plans with them to defeat Japan. On December 3, the Central Daily News published a full version of the “Cairo Declaration.” On August 14, 1945, Chiang delivered a radio address declaring victory in the war against Japan and informing the soldiers and civilians of China and the world that, for the sake of post-war peace, China would “not hold grudges,” and would “do good to all men,” on which basis all Japanese civilians and military personnel would be repatriated to Japan.